Tags Posts tagged with "Customer Analytics"

Customer Analytics

In this (possibly) final blog of this series I will be looking at how customers are becoming increasingly concerned at companies’ inability to keep their data safe, and how high publicity data breaches are eroding public confidence.

I previously wrote how it was possible to know where someone stood on issues of internet security just by checking their birth date. Those born after 1980, the so called Generation Y, or Millennials, are generally more comfortable sharing information online.   But things are gradually changing. In a 2014 survey by eMarketer it was found that Generation Y and Z were also becoming significantly more concerned about how well companies protected their personal data.

eMarketer

This concern can have a major impact on a company’s profits, as a recent report by the Ponemon Institute’s 2015 Cost of Data Breach Study (in conjunction with IBM) showed:-

Lost business has, potentially, the most severe financial consequences for an organization. The cost increased from a total average cost of $1.33 million last year to $1.57 million in 2015. This cost component includes the abnormal turnover of customers, increased customer acquisition activities, reputation losses and diminished goodwill. The growing awareness of identity theft and consumers’ concerns about the security of their personal data following a breach has contributed to the increase in lost business

By studying many data breaches across many industries, Ponemon have developed an approach whereby they can attach cost per record lost in order to estimate the cost of data breaches. What they have found is that, not only are data breaches becoming more common, but they are also becoming more costly.

The average cost paid for each lost or stolen record containing sensitive and confidential information increased 6 percent, jumping from $145 in 2014 to $154 in 2015.

2015 was perhaps the worst year so far for data breaches. NetworkWorld’s Top-10 data breaches of 2015 reported that many firms became the victim of very public data breaches including

  • Children’s toy companies (vTech)
  • Phone companies (T-Mobile, TalkTalk)
  • Healthcare firms (Premera, Anthem)
  • Dating agencies (Ashley Madison)
  • Government departments (IRS)
  • Security consultancies (Hacking Team)

+ Many more.

The trend does not look good, with the number of breaches predicted to increase in both size and cost for the foreseeable future.

Graph

Consumers are now realising that many companies are not vigilant enough in protecting their data, but just as bad, that customer data is being used in ways that are inappropriate and may adversely affect the consumer.

In a poll conducted by leading consultancy Radius Global 78% of internet users said they only purchased from companies they trusted.

The message is clear. If companies are to use customer’s data to provide a better service then they must do everything in their power to ensure the security of their systems and the responsible use of customer data, or run the risk of facing big fines and a catastrophic loss of consumer trust.

Big data and advanced analytics are forcing governments to bring in new regulations to ensure that companies use customer data responsibly, but it’s in every companies interest to ensure that the bond of trust is not broken.

In the previous blog in this series I looked at how the use of persona, and creating customer journey maps for those persona, can give new insights on how to engage customers. By collecting customer data and tracking user interactions across all touchpoints, it’s possible to not only create an revealing profile of a customer’s interests and behaviour, but also better understand if the products and marketing are addressing customer’s wants and needs.

Technology is now rapidly opening up new sources of customer data including everything from health and well-being apps to our children’s activity online. Soon our heating systems, cars, refrigerators and every other connected appliance that’s about to hit the shelves will be churning out a stream of data back to the marketing departments of big corporations. The effective use of this big data undoubtedly has great potential to improve our lives, but there is also an increased risk that the individual’s privacy could be compromised, or the data could also be used to discriminate against an individual unfairly. In a recent case in the UK vulnerable customers were advised to buy energy on tariffs that were far higher than others available.   The same is true of insurance and medical care, and many cases exist where it’s been found that corporations are exploiting data to prey on the vulnerable. Add to this the substantial risks of identity theft and fraud as a consequence of data breaches, and consumers could be forgiven for feeling anxious about how well their data is being protected, and how it’s being used.

In an effort to stop corporations from exploiting big data negatively and better protect consumers the European Union has raised the bar on data protection by drafting the the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). This new set of rules will apply not only to countries within the EU, but also to companies operating outside the EU, if they have networks or trade data with partners within the EU. Enforcement is expected to start in the spring of 2018.

The European commission’s website states that:

The objective of this new set of rules is to give citizens back control over of their personal data, and to simplify the regulatory environment for business.

Furthermore, as reported by consultancy group itgovernance,

The Regulation will enforce tough penalties – proposed fines up to 4% of annual global revenue or €20million, whichever is greater

For a large multinational the fines could get very substantial and significantly impact on share prices.

The GDPR sets out 8 Data Protection Principles that must be followed. The ICO, UK’s independent Information Commission, has provided clarification of how these principles need to be applied. For example, Principle 1 refers to Processing personal data fairly and lawfully. As described on their website,

In practice means that you must:

  • have legitimate grounds for collecting and using the personal data;
  • not use the data in ways that have unjustified adverse effects on the individuals concerned;
  • be transparent about how you intend to use the data, and give individuals appropriate privacy notices when collecting their personal data;
  • handle people’s personal data only in ways they would reasonably expect; and
  • make sure you do not do anything unlawful with the data

Perhaps one of the key new areas is in the use of big data and analytics for customer profiling. This is covered under Principle 6 of the GDPR under the somewhat obtuse description of ‘automated decision making’. ComputerWeekly have produced a number of documents and guides to help businesses to understand how the GDPR will affect them. In one of their latest blogs they explain

The regulation introduces a number of restrictions on profiling, including the right for an individual not to be subject to a decision which significantly affects the individual and which is based on automated profiling. In many cases, profiling will only be permitted where the explicit consent of the individual has been obtained. 

The implications for targeted marketing are unclear, but potentially significant, as it makes companies accountable for ensuring that customers

  1. Are made fully aware of exactly how their data will be used
  2. Explicitly agree to the way in which the data will be used
  3. Do not suffer any negative consequences from the use of their data.

As ComputerWeekly reports

These restrictions are likely to have a considerable impact on businesses engaging in, for example, big data analytics, as well as more general business activities, such as credit scoring and employee monitoring

In an article by the International Association of Privacy Professionals , they add that data subjects (customers)

…may also request to know the purposes of processing, the period of time for which data will be stored, the identity of any recipients of the data, the logic of automatic data processing, and the consequences of any profiling.

Corporations are now in real danger of drifting into a situation in which they are in breach of the new regulations, face substantial fines and seriously damage customer relations.

In the final blog of this series I will be looking at how customers are becoming increasingly concerned at the inability of corporations to keep their data safe, and how high publicity data breaches are eroding public confidence.

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Customer Journey Mapping can provide great insights on how customers see a company from their perspective. Insights that can lead to an improved customer experience, trust and loyalty

In the first blog in this series on customer analytics, the technique of Customer Journey Mapping (CJM) was discussed as a way to follow how customers move from one touch point to the next, and track their emotional well-being during those interactions. In the last blog I described how using a persona to represent a group of customers would allow marketing to get a better understanding of customers. In this blog I will explore how Customer Journey maps can be created for persona to visualize an idealized journey for the group represented. This is now becoming a well-accepted technique for not only improving user experience in software design, but also in the design of products, digital and conventional marketing channels, architecture and many other areas.

There are two basic approaches for creating persona. One is to base the persona on in-depth research of the customers within a market segment, and the other is to base the persona on intuition, sometimes referred to as a provisional persona. In reality, it makes most sense to use a combination of research and intuition, and then verify the persona with those who have front line contact with customers. Generally customers belonging to a company’s biggest market segment would be targeted first and a primary persona is created to represent them. If the team creating the persona do not have direct knowledge of the customers in that segment then they will need to conduct research to understand the values and motivations of the group.

Once a persona has been defined then it’s possible to look at how the company would engage that persona in a sale, and the hope is that the persona would follow each engagement at every touchpoint, even long after they’ve made the purchase and are using the product. The framework for this is known as the Customer Lifecycle. There are many versions of this but they all share some basic stages, as described by Jim Sterne and Matt Cutler in a paper called “E-metrics, business metrics for the new economy

  • Reach: Trying to get the attention of the people we want to reach.
  • Acquisition: Attracting and bringing the reached person into the influence sphere of our organization. 
  • Conversion: When the people we reach or have a more established relationship with, decide to buy something from us.
  • Retention: Trying to keep the customers and trying to sell them more (cross-selling, up-selling).
  • Loyalty: We would like the customer to become more than a customer: a loyal partner and even a ‘brand advocate’ Moments of truth

This can be represented either horizontally or in a circular lifecycle type chart

The Customer Life Cycle – Source: E-Metrics Business Metrics for the New Economy by Jim Sterne and Matt Cutler

The persona journey describes how it’s anticipated that a particular persona would move through the lifecycle. It would describe the channels through which it’s expected they are made aware of a product, how it’s expected they would research the product and what would motivate them to make a decision to buy. Key points in the journey where customers decide whether to continue or abandon the process are known as ‘Moments of Truth’, a term coined by Jan Carlzon, the well-known CEO of SAS Airlines who turned the company around in just a couple of years.

Walking in the customers shoes in this way is not easy, and would normally be done as a workshop with representatives from across an organisation, but it’s an exercise that can provide many useful insights. Service quality gaps, cross channel alignment, ways to better engage customers and align internal teams are just a few of the many benefits that come from journey mapping. When idealised journey maps are compared with the actual journeys that customers take then many preconceived ideas about how customers see and engage with the company may get thrown out and fresh ways to engage, retain and acquire new customers be discovered.

In the next part of this customer analytics based series of blogs I will be looking at the security implications of big data and advanced customer profiling, and how regulators around the world are trying to protect an individual’s right to be treated equally by large corporations.

In my last blog I discussed how different generations are challenging marketing departments to meet them on their own ground. For one key demographic, the Millennials, that ground is the mobile and highly social world in which these digital natives live. For another, the more cost conscious middle aged parents with teenage kids, the battleground is through more conventional channels. However it’s not enough to just choose the right channel for marketing a product. The products, product branding, and marketing language itself needs to be appropriate for those customers as well. Different customers have not only different expectations of the products they use, but also different expectations of the way they like to be told about those products.

The one thing all customers have in common is that they like to be treated as individuals. Individualism is a relatively recent phenomenon in human history, although it could be said to have first really been expressed by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), as Angus Jenkinson identified in his paper ‘Beyond Segmentation’. Rousseau says that truth is subjective, and that traditions and customs must pass the individual’s test ‘can they be authentic for me’. That is a test that consumers increasingly appraise every product with. Can it be authentic for me?

It may seem an impossible challenge to treat every customer in a way which is appropriate to them alone, but there is another approach which can help product designers and marketing departments have a much better understanding of customers, and that is through the use of persona.

The concept of archetypes and persona was formalized early in the 20th century by the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung, but it was the Angus Jenkinson who more recently defined the meaning in a marketing context. Jenkinson suggested that marketing needed to move beyond the top down reductionist approach of segmentation and take a more bottom up approach of grouping customers with similar attitudes and behaviors.

‘segmentation, as normally understood, represents only the first stage in response to the market (individualism) phenomena. It is the first breakdown of the monolithic market into smaller units. It is possible to go further.’

There are definitely strong similarities between the concepts of segmentation and grouping, but there is a fundamental, if subtle difference. It is the difference between gathering individuals into groups, as opposed to dividing the group into segments. As Jenkinson says,

It is much easier to think of developing a relationship with a group (of people) than a segment. How many segments do you personally have a relationship with? Do you want to be part of one? A group connotes…a community of individuals.

Consumers, as individuals tend to gravitate and have loyalty towards something. To change the corporate perception of customers from being part of a segment to being individuals in a group is a fundamental paradigm shift in building customer relationships, and it requires marketers to develop a much more personal understanding of their customers. Marketers have to understand customer goals and frustrations, their values and behaviors. It is with this new understanding of the importance of the individual that the marketing concept of the ‘persona’ has arrived. Personas are ‘model’ characters created to represent all the members of a group. The term persona as used in this context was actually coined in 1999 by Alan Cooper in his seminal book ‘The Inmates Are Running the Asylum’, in which he says that persona, among other benefits,

Provide a human “face” so as to create empathy for the persons represented by the demographics.

Not only do persona models give a detailed account of the emotional needs and values of that group, they often even include a picture of what a typical individual in that group may look like. This is not to say that segmentation is dead. Far from it. Segmentation is still an important tool to help identify the key groups of ideal buyers, but once those groups have been identified then persona need to be created for the segments to give them emotional characteristics and values that they can be identified with. Only by understanding what really motivates customers and providing products that fit in with customer’s lives can marketers grow brand loyalty and trust in a world where the customer is truly king.

In the fourth in this series of customer analytics blogs, Walking in the Customers Shoes, I will be looking at combining the concept of persona with customer journey mapping to understand how to deliver a better customer experience.

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A Customer Journey Map can help businesses to deliver a better, more personalized service

When Doris Day sang the jazz classic ‘Sentimental Journey’ she described the joy of returning home to the things she had missed. Back here in the 21st century we also feel a sense of joy when we get home, but it’s often because we can finally get a reliable internet signal through our Wi-Fi.   Mails download, WhatsApp messages pour in and all those photos and vids we took get uploaded to share.   The sentiment that people feel when they get home and find their internet service is not working is generally far less happy. It’s a sentiment that I experienced first-hand, having suffered from a service that was slower than old fashioned dial-up for several months. Web pages with sliding graphical widgets and targeted advertising completely stopped loading. After endless rounds of calling support, listening to distorted 80’s pop tunes while stuck on hold, and re-booting of modems I just didn’t want to speak to them anymore. In today’s marketing vernacular, I was not having a good “customer experience”, so I left them and went to another service provider.

Although the initial buzz around customer experience may have died down from a few years ago it is still regarded as the single most important ingredient needed to have a successful business. In a recent report Watermark Consulting studied the cumulative stock returns of the top 10 “Leaders” and bottom 10 “Laggards” in Forresters CX index and found

Leaders outperformed the broader market, generating a total return that was 35 points higher than the S&P 500 Index.

Laggards trailed far behind, posting a total return that was 45 points lower than that of the broader market.

In a world of commoditized products and services businesses now rely on customer experience more than ever to differentiate themselves from the competition. However, in the report ‘Customer Analytics: How to make Best use of Customer Data’ the Aberdeen Group has reported that

96% of companies are not fully satisfied with their ability to use data (both customer and operational) in CEM programs’

In order to provide good a customer experience companies need to do 5 things

  1. Introduce good data governance practices around customer data
  2. Create a unified view of customers across all touch points
  3. Profile and segment their customers
  4. Track the emotional impact of a customer interactions with the company over time.
  5. Use that intelligence to guide agents on how to provide the best support for customers.

Enter the world of the customer journey map. A customer journey map (CJM) is a visual representation of all the interactions a customer has with a company, through every touch point, with a measure of the customer’s attitude towards the company during those interactions. For example, receipt of a bill may be a negative experience, whereas receipt of some reward, like bonus loyalty points, would be viewed more positively. These sentiment scores may be collected directly through touch point surveys and recording call dispositions, or inferred based on history and through the use of analytics.

Agents that have an immediate grasp of a customer’s journey and level of satisfaction are far more successful at resolving issues and upselling than agents who do not have that insight.

The first step in understanding a customer’s journey is to introduce good data governance practices and create a unified view of the customer. The Aberdeen group also observed (in their ‘Big Data in CEM’ study) that

More than half of all (56%) businesses lack a unified view of the data captured across multiple channels and stored in systems such as customer relationship management (CRM), marketing automation, e-commerce and enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Customers should then be profiled and segmented along demographic, financial and behavioral lines. Then, by recording their changing sentiments during various interactions with the company, a picture can be built up of how different segments progress through their customer journeys and it becomes possible to understand which interactions lead to greater customer loyalty and value, and which lead to churn.

Customer journey mapping helps companies to understand their customer needs and provide the kind of personal advice and support that builds trust.   Trust that encourages customers to buy more, stay loyal and spread good news about your business.

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